Our immune system
You can become sick if your body is attacked by various types of pathogens. Examples are a virus with flu, a pathogenic bacterium with a stomach infection, a fungus with a foot infection or a parasite. Your immune system will then take action to eliminate these body-foreign pathogens and destroy them.
Sometimes this process goes wrong. Your immune system will then attack the body’s own ‘good’ cells, which are important to eliminate the body’s foreign pathogens. In an immune response to your own ‘good’ body cells, recurrent inflammatory reactions develop and this could lead to an autoimmune disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome are examples of autoimmune arthritis diseases.
The immune system is the defense system in your body that protects you against various foreign pathogens and cells that enter the body. The white blood cells have a major role in the defense process.
The natural immune response in your body takes place in three consecutive steps:
• step 1: the immune system in your body recognizes the body’s own (genetic) cells or the foreign (anti-genetic) cells and pathogens.
• step 2: the immune system’s immune response to the foreign cells and pathogens is started.
• step 3: the immune system makes the foreign cells and pathogens harmless and you get better again.
- Immune system
- Blood plasma
- Blood cells
- Innate immunity
- Passive immunity
- Adaptive (acquired) immunity
- Immune response
- Complement system and cytokines
- Immune system disorder
- Video I Pfizer I Our Immune System
- Video I Osmosis I Introduction to the immune system
- Video RCSBProteinDataBank I What is a protein?
- Nature video I Immunology wars
- Nature video I Immunology in the skin
- Nature video I Immunology of the Lung
- Nature video I Innate lymphoid cells
- Source videos
Your immune system consists of a large group of different cells and proteins, that are made in different parts of your body.
These cells and proteins clear up infections and unnecessary residues of cells. A properly functioning immune system must therefore be able to recognize infections and unnecessary residues of cells. If your immune system clears infections, you can get inflammatory symptoms such as fever, swelling, redness, pain or a flu-like sensation. The cleaning up of the infections and the body’s own remains of cells happens every day and usually you do not notice this. But sometimes the process does not work well. Then the immune system also clears the body’s own healthy cells.
An autoimmune disease develops when something goes wrong when clearing the infections and the remains of cells. The immune system then attacks the body’s own healthy cells and these are important for a good immune response of your immune system in your body. Because of this wrong reaction, recurrent inflammations start to occur in your body. Autoimmune means that the immune system turns against the body itself.
Many autoimmune diseases cause damage to various organs such as the liver, the kidney, the lungs or to your joints, skin or nerves. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome are examples of autoimmune diseases.
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Blood serves three main purposes in our bodies. First, blood is the transport system of the body. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients, transports hormones and enzymes and delivers waste products to be excreted. Second, blood helps regulate our pH, as well as regulation of the body temperature. Finally, products in our blood protect us against disease and also provide clotting agents to stop bleeding.
The components of blood can be put into essentially two categories.
• First, the blood is composed of blood plasma. Blood plasma is a pale-yellowish, watery solution that suspends all of the other parts of the blood. It makes up about 55% of the total volume of our blood. Plasma itself is made up of 91.5% water. It acts as a solvent for important proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, gases, and other substances essential to life.
• Second, there are the solid particles, the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood cells have a limited lifespan. The body breaks down the cells themselves and replaces them with new cells. Red blood cells live about a hundred and twenty days, white blood cells about two days and platelets about ten days.
Image: ID 102580230 © Designua | Dreamstime.com
Your blood consists of approximately 55% of blood plasma (serum). The blood plasma consists of water, proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen and enzymes), electrolytes, nutrients, waste and hormones. The proteins protect the body against infectious diseases by attaching themselves to invading viruses and bacteria and thus rendering those harmless.
Proteins play a key role in almost all biological processes. The proteins have different functions. Despite these different functions all proteins are made out of the same twenty amino acids, but combined in different ways. The way these twenty amino acids are arranged dictates the folding of the protein into its unique final shape. Since protein function is based on the ability to recognize and bind to specific molecules, having the correct shape is critical for proteins to do their jobs correctly.Proteins are the workers in the cells in your body. Proteins consist for the most part of amino acids. In a cell, a series of amino acids are attached to each other, creating a long chain. That chain is then very specifically folded and cupped per protein. In the cell, pieces of the chain may be cut off again, other pieces of other proteins stuck to it and perhaps some sugars stuck to it. Then the protein can be sent to do the work outside the cell. When the protein has arrived at the destination in the body, it is unpacked to do the work there. The effect of the protein depends on the types of amino acids from which the protein is made up and how the protein is folded.
Amino acids are the building blocks of the proteins. Because a large part of our cells, muscles and tissue consist of amino acids, the amino acids fulfill many important functions in our body. Amino acids not only give the cells their structure, but are also indispensable for the transport and storage of all substances in the body. Amino acids influence the functions of organs, glands, tendons or veins. They are essential in wound healing and repair of tissue (especially in muscles, bones, skin and hair) and in countering the negative consequences associated with metabolic disorders.
The protein albumin, for example, has a water-sucking function, so that the water stays in the blood vessels and does not leak to the tissues. Other proteins together with the platelets play an important role in the blood clotting process. The natural blood clotting process usually begins with the damage to a platelet (thrombocyte) caused by a wound or ‘scale attack’ (atherosclerotic plaque) on the inner wall of a blood vessel. Then, substances are released from the damaged platelet that initiate the blood clotting process. As a result, as little blood as possible is lost during an external or internal bleeding.
The blood consists of about 45% of blood cells. All red and white blood cells and platelets are made in the red bone marrow, but white blood cells are also produced in the spleen. Our blood knows three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
• red blood cells (the erythrocytes): these cells bind oxygen to the hemoglobin. In hemoglobin, one protein binds to oxygen while another binds carbon dioxide. This is how one protein can serve two functions. They contain and as blood cell ensure oxygen and carbon dioxide transport through the bloodstream. In the organs and tissues the oxygen is released and exchanged for carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is a waste product from the cells in the tissues and organs. The red blood cells transport the carbon dioxide back to the lungs. When you exhale, the carbon dioxide leaves the body again. Red blood cells are created in the bone marrow by a division of certain bone marrow stem cells (the erythroblasts).
• white blood cells (the leukocytes): these cells are closely involved in your body’s immune reactions against infections with pathogens (bacteria, viruses and fungi). The cells are larger than red blood cells and together the white blood cells have two important functions:
1. defending the body against infections with foreign substances and pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi and yeasts. In case of an infection there are also more white blood cells present in our body.
2. cleaning up the remains of cells and harmful substances in the body.
• platelets: these blood cells initiate blood clotting after a damage so that the bleeding stops. The platelet is the smallest cell in the blood. They help to heal wounds by ensuring that bleeding stops and a crust develops on the wound.
Image: ID 65873012 © Puwadol Jaturawutthichai | Dreamstime.com
We are all born with some level of immunity to invaders. The human immune system will attack foreign invaders from day one. This innate immunity includes the external barriers of our body, the first line of defense against pathogens, such as the skin, mucous membranes of the throat and gut, saliva and stomach acid.
• The skin is the boundary between the inside and outside of your body and ensures that harmful substances and cells do not just enter your body.
• The mucous membranes of the throat and gut are also a barrier. The mucous membrane of the throat catches the bacteria and transports them to the pharynx. The bacteria then come into contact with substances that kill the bacteria before they can cause damage.
• The saliva and stomach acid cause many bacteria to die before they can make your body sick.
This response is more general and non-specific. If the pathogen manages to dodge the innate immune system, adaptive or acquired immunity kicks in.
This type of immunity is “borrowed” from another source, but it does not last indefinitely. This first line of defense is present from birth. It does not focus specifically on one pathogen, but on all pathogens (antigens) that can occur in the body. For example, a baby receives antibodies from the mother through the placenta before birth and in breast milk following birth. This passive immunity protects the baby from some infections during the early years of it’s life.
White blood cells
The white blood cells (leukocytes) form a quick defense line, which makes no distinction between the types of invaders.
• the monocytes absorb the waste products of the immune response and make them harmless (phagocytosis). Monocytes also occur in the tissues and are then called histiocytes.
• the phagocytes: the microfage (small) or macrophage (large) immune cells. Macrophages are found in all body tissues and, together with the microfages, form, as it were, the garbage service of our body. They absorb and dispose of foreign waste (allergens, damaged and dead cells, bacteria, waste, viruses and so on).
• the granulocytes (the neutrophilic and eosinophilic) absorb substances, but also contain granules (granules in the cytoplasm) that release enzymes. These enzymes help to kill and digest substances.
The eosinophilic granulocytes regulate the binding between antibodies and allergens.
The neutrophilic granulocytes clear up the waste products (phagocytosis) just like the macrophages after an allergic or inflammatory reaction.
The basophilic granulocytes contain histamine and other tissue-active substances, which are released when the basophil granulocyte reacts with substances that cause an allergic reaction. Substances that cause an allergic reaction are called allergens. Allergens are almost always proteins. The antibodies that the body makes at the first contact with an allergen are mainly IgE antibodies in allergic people. These react with the allergen.
• the natural killer cells can directly destroy other cells.
Adaptive (acquired) immunity
Adaptive (acquired) immunity from pathogens develops as we go through life. As we are exposed to diseases or get vaccinated, we build up a library of antibodies to different pathogens. The immune system is capable of specifically recognizing an unlimited number of different pathogens and cells that enter the body. The immune system can ‘memorize’ pathogens once it has been in contact with them. When your body is again infected with the same pathogen, the body’s immune system knows how to suppress the infection more quickly. You are then immune to this pathogen. This is sometimes referred to as our immunological memory because our immune system remembers previous enemies.
The recognition task (immunological memory) is performed by the immune cells: white blood cells (lymphocytes) and antibodies (proteins).
The white blood cells and antibodies ‘travel’ through our bodies and destroy all pathogens and foreign cells that they encounter. These immune cells are able to specifically recognize the pathogens or foreign cells. The immune system can therefore remember with which foreign pathogens or cell it has previously been in contact. When the contact with the foreign pathogens or cell is renewed, the reaction will be faster and more severe. This is also the principle behind immunization and vaccination.
The best known antibodies in rheumatism are anti-CCP antibodies and the rheumatic factor.
• Patients with the disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) form the protein CCP. In response, the body forms antibodies against this protein: the anti-CCP antibodies. These antibodies are measured as an aid in diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. To determine RA, the rheumatic factor (RF) can be measured in addition to anti-CCP. It is important to know that anti-CCP antibodies can be detected at an earlier stage of the disease than the RF. Even if the complaints are still unclear, the anti-CCP test can provide extra information.
• The rheumatic factor is an antibody in the blood, which often occurs in people with chronic inflammatory arthritis. The rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody, an immunoglobulin M (IgM) protein that is produced by the body’s immune system. Auto-antibodies attack your body’s own tissues, mistakenly identifying the tissue as “foreign.” While the biologic role of RF is not well understood, its presence is useful as an indicator of inflammatory and autoimmune activity. A test detects and measures RF in the blood and may be used, along with other tests, to help in the diagnose of for example rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
The immune system needs to be able to tell ‘own‘ from ‘foreign‘. It does this by detecting proteins that are found on the surface of cells. An antigen is any substance that can spark an immune response. In many cases, an antigen is a bacterium, fungus, virus, toxin or other foreign body. But it can also be the remains of one of our own cells that is faulty or dead. Initially, a range of cell types work together to recognize the antigen as an invader.
White blood cells or leukocytes
White blood cells or leukocytes have no solid form and can be distinguished from each other by the shape of the nuclei or the grains in the cytoplasm. White blood cells circulate in the body in blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels that parallel the veins and arteries. They are on constant patrol and looking out for pathogens. When they find a target, the white blood cells begin to multiply and send signals out to other cell types to do the same.
White blood cells are stored in lymphoid organs. These include the following:
• thymus, a gland between the lungs and just below the neck.
• spleen, an organ that filters the blood. It sits in the upper left of the abdomen.
• bone marrow, found in the center of the bones, it also produces red blood cells.
• lymph nodes, small glands positioned throughout the body, linked by lymphatic vessels.
There are two main types of white blood cells or leukocytes:
• Phagocytes. These cells surround and absorb pathogens and break them down, effectively eating them. First, the white blood cell has to recognize the invader and realize that it needs to be destroyed. It recognizes signal molecules released by the bacterium and is drawn toward it. The white blood cell then has to attach its membrane to the membrane of the bacterium. It does this by using molecules called surface receptors. These are molecules embedded in the white blood cell’s membrane that are designed to detect and attach to molecules in the membrane of the bacterium. The two cell membranes link up and stick together. Once attached to each other, the membrane of the white blood cell swells outward around the bacterium and engulfs it. The membrane enclosing the bacterium pinches off, and the result is a little pouch, called a phagosome, that contains the offending bacterium inside of the white blood cell. With the bacterium safely imprisoned inside the white blood cell, it can now be destroyed. The white blood cell brings digestive enzymes into the phagosome. These enzymes break up the bacterium, and the resulting harmless particles can either be used by the cell or released out of the cell. There are several types, including:
– Neutrophils, which are white blood cells that play some very important roles in our innate immune system. They circulate around our body in the bloodstream and when they sense signals that an infection is present, they are the first cells to migrate to the site of the infection to begin killing the invading microbes.
– Monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell fighting off bacteria, viruses and fungi. Monocytes are the biggest type of white blood cell in the immune system. Originally formed in the bone marrow, they are released into our blood and tissues. When certain germs enter the body, they quickly rush to the site for attack. Monocytes have the ability to change into another cell form called macrophages before facing the germs. They can actually consume, or munch, on harmful bacteria, fungi and viruses. Then, enzymes in the monocyte’s body kill and break down the germs into pieces.
– Macrophages patrol for pathogens and also remove dead and dying cells. A macrophage is a large white blood cell that is an important part of our immune system. The word ‘macrophage’ literally means ‘big eater.’ It’s an amoeba-like organism and its job is to clean our body of cell debris and invaders. A macrophage has the ability to locate and ‘eat’ particles, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Macrophages are born from white blood cells called monocytes, which are produced by stem cells in our bone marrow. Monocytes move through the bloodstream and when they leave the blood, they mature into macrophages. They live for months, patrolling our cells and organs and keeping them clean.
• Mast cells mediate inflammatory responses such as hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. They are scattered throughout the connective tissues of the body, especially beneath the surface of the skin, near blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, within nerves, throughout the respiratory system, and in the digestive and urinary tracts. Mast cells store a number of different chemical mediators in coarse granules found throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. Upon stimulation by an allergen, the mast cells release the contents of their granules into the surrounding tissues. The chemical mediators produce local responses characteristic of an allergic reaction, such as increased permeability of blood vessels, contraction of smooth muscles and increased mucus production.
• Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help the body to remember previous invaders and recognize them if they come back to attack again. On the cell membrane of lymphocytes are receptors (recipients of stimuli) that fit a specific protein, the antigen, on the outside of a pathogen. This allows a lymphocyte to recognize a pathogen and respond quickly and vigorously to a ‘meeting’. Each lymphocyte has only one type of receptor on its cell membrane, so that the lymphocyte only acts when the antigen of a pathogen fits this receptor.
Lymphocytes can live for years and sometimes even decades. Lymphocytes begin their life in bone marrow. Some stay in the marrow and develop into B-lymphocytes (B-cells), others head to the thymus and become T-lymphocytes (T-cells).
The B-cells and T-cells have different roles:
– B-lymphocytes produce antibodies and help alert the T-lymphocytes. The B-cells (lymphocytes) are white blood cells (the leukocytes) with receptors to bind antigens. They are formed in the bone marrow and are created by certain cells (the lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow. After growing into plasma cells, they produce antibodies (the immunoglobulins) against foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses and allergens. Each B-cell makes one specific antibody. Antibodies are special proteins that lock on to specific antigens (“antibody generators”). Antibodies lock onto the antigen, but they do not kill it, only mark it for death. The killing is the job of other cells, such as phagocytes. Antibodies are part of a large family of immunoglobulins, which play many roles in the immune response. These antibodies protect the body by helping other immune cells to clear the antigens by inactivating toxic substances and by attacking bacteria and viruses directly. The antibodies (immunoglobulins) are substances that the immune system of the body produces after contact with foreign substances, including bacteria, viruses and allergens. Immunoglobulins: IgG marks microbes so other cells can recognize and deal with them; IgM is expert at killing bacteria; IgA congregates in fluids, such as tears and saliva, where it protects gateways into the body; IgE protects against parasites and is also to blame for allergies; and IgD stays bound to B-lymphocytes, helping them to start the immune response.
– T-lymphocytes destroy compromised cells in the body and help alert other leukocytes.The T-cells (lymphocytes) are white blood cells (leukocytes), which provide the cellular immune response. They can distinguish between body ‘own’ and body ‘foreign’ (the cellular immunity). The T-cells are made in the thymus and learn to distinguish the body’s own substances from the foreign substances. T-lymphocytes play an important role in the defense function of the B-cells (maturation of B cells to plasma cells) and the antibodies. T-cells are present in the spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes. There are several T-lymphocytes: cytotoxic T-cells (attacking and destroying infected or abnormal cells, viruses), T-helper cells (coordinate the immune response, attract more T cells or cell-eating phagocytes and help the B-lymphocytes in recognition and production of antibodies) and T-suppressor cells (helping to end the extended immune response).
– Natural killer cells are the most aggressive white cells in the immune system. They make up about 5% to 15% of the total lymphocyte circulating population. They recognize cells to which certain antibodies (the immunoglobulins) have bound. After recognition, they render these cells harmless by secreting antibodies (cytokines). They target tumor cells and protect against a wide variety of infectious microbes.
Complement system and cytokines
The complement system consists of proteins in the innate immune system that kill pathogens directly or help phagocytes recognize and kill a pathogen. It is a collection of blood and cell surface proteins that is a major primary defense and a clearance component of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proteins help our immune system recognize or kill off an invader much more quickly than had they not been there at all. The complement system consists of a chain of more than thirty proteins that induce a chain reaction (one protein activates the other). The complement proteins are directly or indirectly involved in the natural defense of the body. They lead immune cells to the site of the infection in your body, can kill bacteria directly or help to destroy pathogens by binding to it, so that other immune cells can recognize them.
Cytokines. Your body is made up of trillions of cells. These cells are basic units of life; they carry out all the vital functions that keep you alive. But do you know that your cells lead very active social lives? Take for example the cells of your immune system. These cells are constantly sending out signals to let other cells know what’s going on. Your immune cells use cytokines, which are a group of proteins secreted by cells of the immune system to communicate and act as chemical messengers. Cytokines released from one cell affect the actions of other cells by binding to receptors on their surface. You can think of these receptors as mailboxes. They receive the cytokine’s chemical message, and then the receiving cell performs activities based on that message.
There are different types of cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines and tumor necrosis factor. They can act alone, work together or work against each other, but ultimately the role of cytokines is to help regulate the immune response. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. Cytokine is a general name, for example, cytokines made by lymphocytes are called lymphokines. Many of the lymphokines are also known as interleukins (ILs), since they are not only secreted by leukocytes but also able to affect the cellular responses of leukocytes. Cytokines secreted by monocytes or macrophages are called monokines. Cytokines called chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic activities.
Cytokines are involved in many aspects of inflammation and immunity. In fact, you can blame the different cytokines for triggering some familiar symptoms that arise when your body fights an infection, such as fever, inflammation and pain. They direct immune cells to the site of infection. The cytokines are proteins and peptides that fulfill a signal function, mediate and regulate immunity and inflammation and which are involved in the formation of blood cells. They are the messengers of the immune system and are released by white blood cells and other cells within the immune system.
Immune system disorders
Because the immune system is so complex, there are many potential ways in which it can go wrong. Types of immune disorders fall into three categories:
Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more parts of the immune system do not function (well). They can be caused in a number of ways, such as by aging, obesity, alcoholism and malnutrition. As you age, the effectiveness of your immune system decreases. Macrophages destroy foreign substances more slowly, T-lymphocytes react less readily to antigens and fewer lymphocytes are available for new antigens as you get older. An older body is less able to respond to a new pathogen. The amount of complement proteins is also lower in the elderly. In addition, an older body produces fewer antibodies in response to an antigen and the antibodies are also less able to bind to an antigen. An example of an acquired immunodeficiency is aids. In some cases immunodeficiencies can be inherited, for example, in chronic granulomatous disease where phagocytes do not function properly.
In autoimmune conditions, the immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells, rather than foreign pathogens or dead cells. In this scenario, they cannot distinguish ‘own’ from ‘foreign’. If this happens, you have an autoimmune disease.
Immunosuppressant drugs are a class of drugs that suppress or reduce the strength of the body’s immune system. Some of these drugs are often used to treat autoimmune disorders such as lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. With an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks the body’s own tissue. Because immunosuppressant drugs weaken the immune system, they suppress this reaction. This helps reduce the impact of the autoimmune disease on the body. Autoimmune diseases include: psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome.
With hypersensitivity, the immune system overreacts in a way that damages healthy tissue. An example is anaphylactic shock where the body responds to an allergen so strongly that it can be life-threatening.
A virus cell consists of a membrane and hereditary material (RNA) that is enveloped by a layer of protein (protein coat). A virus can multiply rapidly in a body cell. The body cell will then break down and the new viruses from that body cell will spread through your body and can make new body cells sick. A virus is sometimes seen as a kind of simplified bacterium, but an important difference is that a virus cannot propagate without a host cell. A virus can cause for example a nasal cold or a flu.
The cell wall protects the bacterium. Within the cell membrane we find the cytoplasm, a syrup-like basic substance, consisting of more than 60% water. A bacterial cell has no cell nucleus, but contains a single chromosome. A bacterium is a single-cell organism and simply divides into two at lightning speed. From one bacterium, there can be millions after half a day.
Bacteria are in and on your body, in and on foods, in the ground, in the water and in the air. In your body the good bacteria make vitamins, for example vitamin k, in the colon; help bacteria in the large intestine (intestinal flora) to digest food; and they protect our skin. But bacteria can also be pathogens. These harmful bacteria cause infectious diseases and can cause stomach and intestinal complaints. Examples are Salmonella, Clostridia, Listeria, Legionella and Campylobacter.
Fungi can be one cell in size. But there are also fungi, such as mushrooms, that consist of many cells. Fungi do have cell nuclei. Fungi on athlete’s foot can cause skin infections.
Certain complaints can be caused by bacteria and viruses, but also by an infection where a parasite is the cause. A parasite is an organism that keeps alive and propagates at the expense of another living organism (the host). The parasite lives in or on the host, this can be temporary but also permanent. There are two types of parasites:
• ectoparasites: they live in or on the skin, examples are mites, lice and fleas.
• endoparasites: living in the host, examples are worms and single-celled organisms.
In case of an infection, a number of long-term complaints can arise, but it is also possible that the symptoms only occur occasionally. Examples of complaints can include abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss and/or fever.
Cortical Studios / Glow Studio I Our Immune System – Pfizer
Osmosis I Introduction to the immune system
RCSBProteinDataBank I What is a protein?
Nature video I Immunology wars: A billion antibodies
Nature video I Immunology in the skin
Nature video I Immunology of the Lung
Nature video I Innate lymphoid cells
Osmosis I Introduction to the immune system I https://youtu.be/Xc_Ljc5ycfM
RCSBProteinDataBank I What is a protein? I https://youtu.be/qBRFIMcxZNM
Cortical Studios / Glow Studio I Our Immune System – Pfizer I https://youtu.be/MI-BLaj5nFk
Nature video I Immunology wars: A billion antibodies I https://youtu.be/Na-Zc-xWCLE
Nature video I Immunology in the skin I https://youtu.be/_VhcZTGv0CU
Nature video I Immunology of the Lung I https://youtu.be /rgphaHmAC_A
Nature video I Innate lymphoid cells I https://youtu.be/CXz6FVqPqHw
Cortical Studios / Glow Studio I Our Immune System – Pfizer
Osmosis I Introduction to the immune system I https://youtu.be/Xc_Ljc5ycfM
Cortical Studios / Glow Studio I Our Immune System – Pfizer I https://youtu.be/MI-BLaj5nFk
Accountability text immune diseases
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